BLAS and LAPACK are optimimzed linear algebra libraries (the latter uses the former). ATLAS is an implementation of BLAS and portions of LAPACK. Some or all of these libraries are available on just about every platform.

Regardless of the acronyms involved, one can build GAMMA to take advantage of these libraries if they're installed. The procedure for doing so varies from one operating system to another and is detailed below.

GAMMA is faster when built with these libraries. Quantifying the performance increase is discussed below.


OS X is the easiest platform to discuss since OS X ships with Apple-optimized BLAS and LAPACK implementations. which are always present. GAMMA's OS X Makefile uses BLAS and LAPACK by default.

However, we've found that [ticket:22 mixing a BLAS-enabled PyGAMMA with Python's multiprocessing library is toxic] and so use of BLAS is disabled by default when building PyGAMMA. (Note that this just applies to BLAS. PyGAMMA for OS X still uses LAPACK.)


BLAS, LAPACK and ATLAS are widely available under Linux, but the details vary from on distribution to another. As a result, GAMMA's Linux Makefile does not use BLAS, LAPACK or ATLAS by default.

If you plan to use a BLAS-enabled PyGamma with Python's multiprocessing library (as Vespa) does, be aware that [ticket:22 some BLAS implementations don't work with Python's multiprocessing library]. We don't know if this affects PyGamma on Linux.


As of this writing (June 2011), our Linux Makefile is set up to use GOTOBLAS2. That BLAS implementation has a good reputation but is unfortunately no longer being developed. It's also not available via the package manager of many popular Linux distributions.

If you want to enable use of GOTOBLAS2 under Linux, you'll need to install GOTOBLAS2 and then edit the Makefile sections marked "lapack" appropriately for your platform and [GammaBuildingLibrary build your own GAMMA].

Linux - OpenBLAS

At least one user has reported success with OpenBLAS which is a direct offspring of GOTOBLAS2. As of this writing (January 2013), it is a live and active project.

Linux - GNU Scientific Library (GSL) BLAS

We are aware that GSL provides BLAS support and is available in the package manager of many popular Linux distros. We would like to see GSL BLAS support in GAMMA but we haven't yet found the time to do it ourselves. We'd love a patch! Feel free to contact us about this.


The Sun Studio compiler which is used by default in Solaris comes with an optimized BLAS/LAPACK library. However, the CBLAS interface is missing and libcblas needs to be installed separately. GAMMA's Solaris Makefiles use BLAS and LAPACK by default.


BLAS, LAPACK and ATLAS are available under Windows, but since GAMMA under Windows has a completely different build system than under all other platforms, we haven't found the time to set up use of these libraries. GAMMA's Windows build does not use BLAS, LAPACK or ATLAS.

If you get GAMMA to build on Windows using BLAS, LAPACK or ATLAS, please let us know how you did it. We'd welcome the contribution and all GAMMA Windows users would benefit.

Performance Benefit

The linear algebra libraries undoubtedly improve performance for matrix operations. In some specific cases when multiplying large matrices (> 256 x 256) we saw runtime reduced by as much as 90%. Note that this was doing matrix operations in isolation, not as part of GAMMA.

It's difficult to say how much an average GAMMA user will benefit from using BLAS/LAPACK. The first problem of course, is to define what an "average" GAMMA user is. The second would be to test a variety of GAMMA operations under various operating systems both with and without BLAS/LAPACK/ATLAS.

We'd rather not invest time in generating benchmarks of questionable value. Instead we merely recommend that you use BLAS/LAPACK/ATLAS with GAMMA if possible on your platform. If you can help us to make it easier for others to do that too, we'd appreciate it.

Earlier work and notes

Listed below is a discussion of initial work done on this project. The section above here has the most recent description of work with BLAS, LAPACK, and/or ATLAS.

Initial Work on GAMMA with Lapack/Atlas/Blas


This section describes initial work done with ATLAS and LAPACK, and some suggestions on how to proceed.

Note: Since the initial writing of this section, Lapack has introduced a new library (11/15/10) that has native C calls that should simplify the work done below and possibly speed it up. That work was done in collaboration with Intel. For more information see these links:


NOTE: This enhanced version of Lapack has since been integrated into the GAMMA/PyGAMMA build.

Gamma with LAPACK and Atlas Enhancements

Initial work was done to study the benefits of Adding LAPACK and Atlas to the Gamma code. Basically how much speed enhancment would be gained by speeding up the linear algebra package.

Initial Steps

These are the results using the Fortran version of Lapack with "c-wrappers".

One of the first things was that to make a major change to the Linear Algebra code would be outside of the scope of the current grant so a more focused approach was used. Specific routines were targeted that make up substantial portions of the computations for various simulations. I changed some code in:


routine by adding in code that uses blas (cblas / Atlas) to compute the product of two matrixes. The input matrix was copied into a suitable matrix to pass to this routine:


Testing indicated that the benefit of this approach on 2 independent computers, both with dual core "Pentium 6" chips, with 2-4 GBytes RAM and clock speeds in the 2.6 to 2.8 MHz range, was not obtained until the matrix sized reached 256 on a side.

Additional works was done on this routine:


matrix diagonalization of a hermitian matrix. This utilized CLAPACK (LAPACK with a C wrapper). This also used the strategy of copying the date to a suitable matrix (in this case row major ordering) and shipping off to the routine:


Testing of this routine also indicated that the minimum matrix size to gain benefit from this routine was 256x256. This was the main reason we abandoned this approach as our molecules were of spin 7 and 8 (or matrix size 128x128 and 256x256), or less.

What Next

A few thoughts on how to proceed.

  • Start with a detailed profiling of the code to see where it slows down for real problems.
  • Consider using the MAGMA project to speed up linear algebra using GPU's and mutlicore PC's:
  • There is also the parallel processing linear algebra project: